The main concern with the use of BPC-157 peptide in its primary form was the degree of its release and absorption from the gastrointestinal tract and the effect of temperature on its activity. Due to the high concentration of H+ ions in the lumen of the stomach, the gastric juice produced there affects the bioavailability of the substance by reducing the absorption of the component. Gastric juice is strongly acidic, its pH value in a healthy person is 1.2 ± 0.3. It is a mixture of water, hydrochloric acid, sodium and potassium chloride, phosphates, sulfates, pepsin, a small amount of lipase, renin and mucus. During the activation of one of the components, which is pepsin, which is a phophoprotein, a peptide is cut off, which inhibits its activation with hydrochloric acid through autocatalysis. This process leads to rapid degradation and reduced stability of the enzyme. The BPC-157 peptide in its basic form does not have the ability to pass through the body's gastric barrier. Its activity, stability and absorbability in this form are at levels that prevent it from entering the central bloodstream. This leads to failure to achieve the expected therapeutic effect. The peptide in its basic form must additionally be released through a complex organic matrix, which is impossible in unmodified form.
BPC-157 is the term for pentadecapeptide, a protein with 15 amino acids. According to the patent, BPC-157 refers to "peptides containing 8-15 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 900-1600 daltons." Its structure is shown as a formula: [Zaa Pro Pro Pro Xaa Yaa Pro Ala](-) or (2-) The BPC-157 peptide is widely used in the supplementation of professional athletes as well as physically active individuals. To date, it has been found in the environment in the form of subcutaneous, injectable delivery. Attempts to administer the peptide in oral form have posed problems related to the preservation of its biological activity in the body.
A typical peptide is a compound made of amino acids, where a peptide bond is formed between the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid and the carboxyl group (-COOH) of the other amino acid. Through synthetic modifications, the BPC-157 peptide has been reduced to a form of the NL-BPC-157 TM analog, which is a compound with high application potential, making it possible to administer it via the per os (oral) route.
BPC-157 has long helped physically active people and professional athletes in recovery processes. Showing a broad spectrum of action, it can be said to target a larger audience than the aforementioned.
One example is the effect of BPC-157 on the digestive system. In cases of convalescence, after surgical procedures, especially in the case of the gastric mucosa where regeneration is needed, which is essential for the normal functioning of the body.
It helps stabilize blood pressure, through the production of nitric oxide, and during hyperkalemic disorders caused by too high a concentration of lithium in the body.
In addition, it influences the activity of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine, so it can show supportive effects in the treatment of depressive conditions or pain complaints.
The results of the study also indicate the ability of BPC-157 to reverse the toxic effects of drugs from the group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) .
Epithalon is the term for a tetrapeptide of amino acids with the sequence Ala - Glu - Asp - Gly, having a molecular weight of 390.35 g/mol. Epithalon peptide is widely used in rejuvenation and regeneration therapies.
Epithalon is derived from Epithalamin (Epithalamine), a naturally occurring polypeptide that is produced in the pineal gland. So far, it has been found in the environment in the form of subcutaneous, injectable delivery. Attempts to administer the peptide in oral form have posed problems related to the preservation of its biological activity in the body.
A typical peptide is a compound made of amino acids, where a peptide bond is formed between the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid and the carboxyl group (-COOH) of the other amino acid. Through synthetic modifications, the Epithalon peptide has been reduced to the form of the NL-EPITHALON TM analog, which is a compound with high application potential, making it possible to administer it via the per os (oral) route.
Telomere elongation - slowing down the ageing process
Aging is a biological and psychological process involving a gradual decline in the activity of the body's cells, a slowdown in regenerative processes, a decrease in resistance to adverse environmental factors, and a decrease in the body's ability to adapt to new conditions. Epithalon induces the expression of the catalytic subunit, telomerase enzymatic activity and telomere elongation, which may result from the reactivation of the telomerase gene in somatic cells and indicates the possibility of prolonging the life of cell populations and the whole organism.
Neutralization of free radicals
Secondary cytotoxicity is caused by free radicals, which are involved in the aging process. In the body, circulating free radicals and antioxidants must be kept in proper balance. Excess free radicals cause atherosclerosis, cancer and premature aging, among other things.
Epithalon exhibits antioxidant effects that maintain or restore balance between circulating free radicals.
Suppression of inflammation
Inflammation is a natural immune response that can be dysregulated and exacerbated in a wide range of diseases i.e. rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis and also disorders in the psychiatric area. Inflammatory processes depend on intercellular communication of mediating biological molecules i.e. cytokine, C-reactive protein and other acute phase proteins.
Studies on Epithalon have shown anti-inflammatory effects based on the regulation of acute phase inflammatory reactant levels (c3 complement component, pre-albumin, C-reactive protein, alpha-orosomucos).
Effects on melatonin secretion and circadian rhythms
As we age, our diurnal rhythms become disrupted and less distinct, coinciding with decreased melatonin secretion and altered sleep cycles.
Epithalon stimulates evening melatonin secretion and restores circadian rhythms that are associated with cortisol release.
Impact on the brain
A healthy brain is the foundation for the body to function properly. Malabsorption syndrome can cause nutrient deficiencies that can result in diseases such as behavioral disorders, ADHD, autism, depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease, which eliminate a person from functioning properly in daily life.
GHK-CU is the term for an amino acid tripeptide with a glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine sequence, having a molecular weight of 403.9242 g/mol. GHK-CU is widely used in cosmetology for its protective and regenerative properties.
So far, it has been found in the environment in the form of subcutaneous, injectable delivery. Attempts to administer the peptide in oral form have posed problems related to the preservation of its biological activity in the body.
A typical peptide is a compound made of amino acids, where a peptide bond is formed between the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid and the carboxyl group (-COOH) of the other amino acid. Through synthetic modifications, the GHK-CU peptide has been reduced to the form of the NL-GHK-CU TM analog, which is a compound with high application potential, making it possible to administer it via the per os (oral) route.
The use of GHK-Cu resulted in an increase in skin density and thickness, with a concomitant reduction in skin sagging. A reduction in fine lines and wrinkles was observed. There was increased collagen production in 70% of the treated women, improved skin hydration, significant smoothing of the skin through stimulation of collagen synthesis, increased skin elasticity and significant improvement in skin contrast and increased collagen I production.
Wound healing activity by GHK-CU
The use of GHK-CU, improves wound contraction and granulation tissue formation, as well as increases the activity of antioxidant enzymes, stimulates blood vessel growth and healing of ischemic open wounds. Wounds, moreover, under the influence of the peptide showed faster healing, a reduction in metalloproteinases 2 and 9 and TNF-β, which is a major inflammatory cytokine.
Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.
The action of GHK-Cu results in the inactivation of damaging free radicals that are by-products of lipid peroxidation, such as 4-hydroxynoneal, acrolein, malondialdehyde and glyoxal, protecting cultured skin keratinocytes from ultraviolet (UV) radiation. GHK-Cu reduced the release of iron from ferritin by 87%. Ferritin in blood plasma can store up to 4,500 iron atoms per protein molecule, which is a well-known catalyst for lipid peroxidation - a chain reaction that produces an abundance of free radicals, leading to damage to DNA, proteins and cell membranes. Abnormalities in iron metabolism contribute to many pathological conditions, including brain damage and neuronal death in various neurological conditions. Iron released from ferritin can form an Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) complex and start a chain reaction of lipid oxidation.
Promoting nerve regrowth
GHK-Cu increased the production of nerve growth factor and neurotrophins NT-3 and NT-4, accelerated the regeneration of nerve fibers from nerve segments placed in the collagen tube, and increased the number of axons and proliferation of Schwann cells.
Blocking cortisol's effects
Cortisol inhibits bone formation processes and interferes with collagen synthesis, which also negatively affects the state of connective tissue. Cortisol has immunosuppressive effects, and these are mainly due to modulation of the ratio of the Th1 and Th2 cytokine arms of the immune system, decreasing Th1 activity and increasing Th2.
Topical steroids, such as cortisone, are often prescribed to treat skin inflammation, and can inhibit wound healing, as well as cause skin thinning and other defects. GHK-Cu has a similar effect.